What Is Vaspin? How to Increase or Decrease It Naturally and Artificially

Your Team Player in Obesity and Inflammation

Your body is constantly trying to keep homeostasis. In times of obesity and inflammation, your body (from fat cells) will produce vapsin as a compensatory mechanism to keep you "normal".

 
 

Basics

Vaspin, visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor, is a adipokine, meaning it regulates fatty tissue and glucose homeostasisR

Low vaspin levels can predict: 

  • Stroke R
  • Obesity (but is high in child obesity, suggesting chronic obesity may cause lower vaspin) R R
  • Type 2 Diabetes R
  • Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Disease, and Ankylosing Spondylitis R
  • Insulin Resistance R
  • Behcet's Disease R
  • Thickness of artery walls and Carotid Artery Disease R R
  • Neuropathy, Retinopathy and Nephropathy R
  • Chronic Hemodialysis R
  • Hypothyroidism R
  • Growth Hormone Deficiency R
  • Endometrial Cancer R
  • Psoriasis R

High vaspin levels can predict:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis R
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome R
  • Chronic Inflammation R
  • Chronic Hepatitis C R
  • Ulcerative Colitis R
  • Anorexia R
  • Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome R
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage R
  • Sepsis R

When vaspin is high, it is usually involved in the regulating inflammatory responsesR

Another main point of vaspin in the body is to protect the body during obesity, as vaspin is not seen normal glucose-tolerant individuals. R 

So vaspin will raise as insulin resistance gets worse to protect the body from obesity. As inflammaiton and obesity gets worse, vaspin will still be expressed, having no effect, thus causing "vaspin resistance". 

Mechanism Of Action

 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/psc.2621/abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/psc.2621/abstract

 

Vaspin, contains 415 amino acids and is secreted by visceral adipose tissue. R

It is a serine protease inhibitor (in the family of serpinA12). R

Protease (enzyme) inhibitors either play a causative role in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders or that they are at least biomarkers for these diseases. R

Vaspin is expressed in fat (adipose tissue), skin, hypothalamus, pancreatic islets, liver, and stomach. R

 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918733

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918733

 

Vaspin works on the the body through visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an active endocrine organ, performing functions on physiological processes, reproduction, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, blood pressure regulation, atherogenesis, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immune and vascular homeostasis through direct or indirect impact on the regulation of proliferation. R

This functional diversity is brought on by the ability to synthesize and secrete a multitude of enzymes, hormones, growth factors, cytokines, complement factors, and matrix membrane proteins, termed adipokinesR

Other noteworthy adipokines are leptin are adiponectin. R

Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ that plays critical roles in energy homeostasis through secreting bioactive molecules (adipocytokines). R

Vaspin:

  • Activates Glut4 R
  • Activates STAT3 R
  • Increases Acetylcholine R
  • Increases expression of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-beta and -alpha, and FABP4 R
  • Increases Nitric Oxide (upregulates eNOS expression, inhibits ADMA and DDAH) R R
  • Indirectly increases Orexin (decreasing NPY, but increasing POMC) R R 
  • Inhibits NF-kB R
  • Inhibits Kallikrein 7 (hK7), inhibiting saliva production? R
  • Decreases Adiponenctin R
  • Decreases CRP R
  • Decreases HOMA IR R
  • Decreases IL-6 R
  • Decreases LDL-C R
  • Decreases Leptin R
  • Decreases Resistin R
  • Decreases ROS R
  • Decreases Triglyceride Levels R
  • Decreases TNF-alpha R
  • Doesn't bind to cortisol and thyroxine (interacts with GRP78) R
  • Negatively correlated with Creatinine levels R
  • Phosporaltes ERK (activating MAPK/ERK pathway) R
  • Upregulates PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway R

Roles In The Body

1. Regulates Blood Sugar and Diabetes

 
 

There is dysregulation of vaspin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. R

Administration of recombinant vaspin improves glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. R

In humans, vaspin has insulin-sensitizing effects, which directly helps vaspin reduce insulin resistance. R R

In mice, vaspin can protect against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver DiseaseR

Also vaspin protects epithelial progenitor cells from the toxic effects of high glucoseR

2. Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties

 
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/11/2823

http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/11/2823

 

Vaspin is able to protect against chronic inflammationR

Vaspin is able to decrease inflammatory markers, like TNF-alphaR

It may also inhibit proliferation, chemokinesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. R

Vaspin exerts its anti-inflammatory action through binding to GPR78, a glucose-regulated protein, and the subsequent signals beneficially stress induced metabolic disorders. R

This means it protects the liver from stress. R

Vaspin can also inhibit the inflammatory effects of NF-kBR

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulation is seen commonly in metabolic syndrome. R

Vaspin fights oxidative stress created by AGEs (as a compensatory mechanism). R

3. Protects The Heart, Brain, And Vascular System

 
 

Vaspin is protects the heart and vascular systemR

For example, patients' risk of having a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) were significantly reduced by higher amounts of vaspin in their system. R

It protects the build up of plaque, preventing atherosclerosisR R

Higher levels of vaspin are inversely correlated with lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, small LDL-C and LDL-C levels. R

Vaspin is able to improve blood flowR

It does this by increasing nitric oxideR

Higher levels of vaspin have also been shown to reduce the incidence of strokeR

Vaspin is able to regulate blood pressure. R

In hyptertensive rats, vaspin was able to prevent the increase in blood pressure. R

4. Regulates Obesity

 
 

Vaspin levels are significantly increased in mice with obesity and insulin resistance. R

Increased vaspin expression may be an intrinsic compensatory mechanism in fat as a response to decreased insulin sensitivity or glucose metabolism impairment. R

This is because vaspin can reduce blood sugar and increase glucose toleranceR

Vaspin helps with food intake regulationR

In humans, higher vaspin levels correlates with less food intake, such as restraint, disinhibition to hunger. R

In mice that were injected with vaspin, they ate less. R 

Vaspin levels pre-gastric bypass surgyery preditcs a better outcome. R

5. Protects The Skeletal System

 
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep25578/figures/9

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep25578/figures/9

 

Vaspin is able to stop cell death of ostoeoblasts, which is a cell promotes bone formation. R

Vaspin also increases bone mineral density, helping diseases like osteoporosis (via MiR-34c). R

Genetics

 
 

SERPINA

rs2236242

  • AA alleles - associated with type 2 diabetes in a German population correlated with higher waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting and 30 min glucose levels. R

rs11160190

  • A allele - strongest correlation with serum vaspin - located within various potential binding sites for transcription factor such as neuro- fibromatosis type-1 and TFII-I for the major G-allele and vitamin D receptor , FOXP3, PXR-1, c-Myb and GR. R

rs61757459

  • AG - lower circulating vaspin concentrations compared to the GG homozygous children. R

rs77060950

  • Minor A allele - exhibit higher levels of serum vaspin. R

Vaspin Levels And Caveats

Vaspin levels increase with aging, usually from dysregulation of other adipokines. R

They don't differ much between men and women. R

Vaspin also has a circadian rhythm in the human body. R

It is highest in the morning right before breakfast and falls ~2 hours after eating. R

Since there are no common labs for looking at vaspin levels, you can predict serum vaspin levels by looking at TNF-a, hs-CRP, fasting insulin/glucose, adiponenctin, leptin and creatinine.

Also if you had PCOS, then you'd want to check FSH and SHBG.

It is probably best to have higher vaspin levels and decrease any inflammation you may have.

How To Increase Vaspin

 
 

Diet/Lifestyle

  • Exercise (Vaspin increases if you do not train often, but people who exercise often, like competitive sportsman may have lower circulating levels) R R
  • Fasting R
  • Glucose Consumption R
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System Activation (Vagus nerve stimulation, deep breathing, yoga, etc) R
  • Significant Weight Changes (Gains and Loss) R R

Hormones/Drugs

How To Decrease Vaspin

 
 

Diet/Lifestyle

  • Reduce inflammation R
  • Resistance Training R 
  • Being lean and Weight Loss R
  • Low-fat, Mediterranean, or Low-carbohydrate diets R
  • Lowering Hba1c levels R
  • Going Into Labor R

Supplements/Drugs

More Research

  • Vaspin may play a role in fetal development. R