Why Your Bones Rely On Preptin

Improve Bone Structure and Improve Metabolism

Preptin can predict many diseases along with regulate blood sugar, the skeletal system, and blood pressure.

 
 

Basics

 
 

Preptin, adropin and irisin help regulate homeostasis. R

Preptin is one of 4 major pancreatic hormones (in addition to amylin, glucagon, and insulin) important in glucose homeostasis. R

Preptin Levels

Preptin is low in:

Preptin is high in:

  • After Giving Birth R
  • Chronic Hepatitis C Infection R
  • Obesity (with Morbid Obesity having even higher levels) R R
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome R
  • Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes R R

Females have higher preptin levels than males. R

Preptin increases with body mass index. R

Preptin is secreted after feeding, especially foods high in glucose. R

So fasting or eating a diet low in carbs, high in fat should decrease preptin levels. 

Roles In The Body

1. Regulates Blood Sugar

 
 

Preptin can regulate carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. R

This is possible because preptin increases insulin secretion. R

For example, preptin is found higher in those with type 2 diabetes. R

Also, higher preptin levels creates a higher tolerance to glucose.  R

2. Improves The Skeletal System

 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023068/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023068/

 

Preptin helps improve osteoblasts function (via connective tissue growth factor or CTGF). R

Osteoblasts are cells that support and reinforce healthy bones. 

For example, local administration of preptin increased bone formation and bone area in adult male mice. R

Osteoporosis is a condition when the bones become fragile from loss of bone tissue. 

Serum preptin levels have been shown to be low in those who have osteoporosis. R

Preptin is also shown to be lower in osteopaenia patients. R

Also, a shorter fragment of preptin, preptin-(1–16), is able to stimulate bone growth, which can be useful for osteoperosis. R

3. Important In Infancy

 
 

Preptin is also found in human breast milk (and colostrum). R

Breast milk contains appropriate levels of fat, sugar, water, enzymes, cytokines, steroids, prostaglandins, amino acids, pituitary trophins, thyroid hormones, hypothalamic releasing factors, nutrients, enzymes, cytokines, steroid hormones and peptide hormones. R

This may mean that preptin helps infants grow strong bones. 

4. Involved In The Vascular System

 
 

High preptin levels can cause hypertension, or high blood pressureR

This is because preptin lowers nitric oxide and the albumin/creatinine ratio. R

Mechanism Of Action

Preptin is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone and originates from proinsulin-like growth factor II (pro IGF II). R R

Preptin (along with insulin and amylin is secreted from pancreatic beta cells in response to increased glucose levels after feeding. R

It is also found in high circulating levels in obesity. R

Preptin:

  • Activates MAPK R
  • Activates PKC/PLC R
  • Decreases Nitric Oxide R
  • Increases CTGF R
  • Increases Insulin R
  • Increases Orexin R
  • Produces IGF-II R

More Research

  • Preptin mixed with IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) antibodies suppressed insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner. R